GAD /1650/20






1.0 Introduction. 18



1.3 justification of study. 19







2.1 coffee qualities. 1

2.2 Harvesting methods. 1

2.3 post -harvest processing. 1

2.4 Pre-harvest 2

2.5 Dry processing. 2

2.6 wet processing. 2

2.7 Genetic factors. 3

2.8 coffee storage. 3

2.9 climate and soil factors. 3

2.9.1 Institutional factors. 4

2.9.2 socio-economic factors. 4

2.9.3 Coffee shade tree. 4

2.9.3 Management practice. 5



3.1 Introduction. 6

3.2 Area of study. 6

3.3 Research design. 6

3.4 Sampling procedure. 6

3.5 Data collection. 7

3.6 summary. 7



4.1 Introduction. 9

4.2 influence of education level 9

4.3 influence of coffee production. 10

4.4 influence of disease and insect pest management 11

4.5 influence of weed management 12

4.5 influence of coffee pruning. 12

4.6 influence of extension service provided to farmers. 12

4.7 periods within the time of payment of farmers. 13

4.8 influence of harvesting and drying. 14

4.9 Influence of soil characteristics. 14

4.9.1 Influence of fertilizer application. 16

4.9.2 Influence in packaging and storing. 17

4.9.3 Coffee market 19


Summary, findings, conclusion and recommendations. 21

5.1 Fertilizer application. 21

5.2 weed management 21

5.3 coffee pruning. 22

5.4 extension service. 22

5.5 coffee harvesting and drying. 22

5.6 coffee picking and storing. 23

5.7 coffee markets. 23

5.8 coffee disease and insect pest 24

5.9 conclusions. 24

5.9.1Recommendations. 25

5.9.2 Suggestion for further research. 25

Conceptual framework. 26

Research frame work. 27

Questionnaire. 28

References. 31


I declare that this is my work and it has not been submitted to any institution for ward of Diploma in General agriculture.


Candidate name———-Date————

Course ——————————————-

This report proposal has been submitted for examination with my approval as the institution supervisor.

Signature ———————Date —————

Lucy marieta





A would like to thank my almighty for helping me to successful completion of this report project, this work could have not been accomplished if it were not for a generous assistance of individuals and institution. I am particularly grateful to my supervisor Lucy Marietta for her encouragement, willingness to supervise my research project, i have would like to extend my deepest gratitude to entire Emining Technical institute for helping me in completion the course of my study

      I express my sincere feelings and appreciation to staff of Kipkelion coffee Co-operative special thanks to winy Ngeno, Raphael Towet, mercy cherono, Grace Bii, John koech, my thanks goes to Dr Dennis keino for assistance in analysis of my data. Lastly I want to thank my parents, friends for opportunity offered to continue with my study.


I dedicate this project to my sister Veronicachelangat Yegon for the support and company throughout the research and writing of project.


Arabica (coffee Arabica) is economically important crop which is contributing the highest of revenue to kipkelion west area. it is also cash crop in kipkelion and surrounding areas, coffee quality is declining due to several improper pre-and post-harvest management practice by the majority of coffee farmers and traders as a result of price fluctuation, this study was to determine the factors that influence the quality of coffee berries. The study was based on data collection from 100 farmers and analyzed using the statistical package for social science (SPSS version 22 of 2017)The result obtained from the study indicate that among the pre and post-harvest factors, limited use of coffee shade tree, prevalence of disease and insect pest, bad harvesting, drying, packaging ,storing practice, coffee pruning, time of payment of farmers, weed management, fertilizer application, shortage of extension service is one of the factors that influence the quality of coffee, the results obtained from interview show that absence of fixed coffee selling price and shortage of infrastructure is a problem which results to low price of coffee.

It was the for recommended that improve coffee pre harvest management practice, the quality and production of this coffee bring benefit for all farmers as well as the ministry of agriculture. recommended shade tree practice by using improved recommended shade tree species selected by released by research center, use improve special coffee variety recently released by research center, improve drying techniques by stopping lastly as a recommended improve harvesting techniques by only harvesting red Cherry at farm and also improve packing material and store coffee after it well dried in good place for a short period of time.   






  In this section, it contains the background of the study, statement of the problem, justification of the study, specific objectives, research question, and limitation of the study and significance of  the study.


Coffee (coffee Arabica) is one of the cash crops grown in many parts of the world. Coffee is the favorite beverage and the second most commodities and it is a source of income to several countries. Globally China is the among top 20 worldwide producers of coffee 98% of grown in China come from yunna province and it is the largest export of coffee. In Africa Brazil is the best producers of 2.7million tones it has been the largest producers of coffee for the last 100years which cover area of 2700km2 the plantation were the environment and climate is good for growing. In east Africa Ethiopia is the best producer’s country amount of coffee with 26000tonnes  which is estimated to about 400km2 they produce 3% the revenue from coffee export and 10% of the annual Government revenue, economic important to Ethiopia around 60% of the foreign income come from coffee with estimate of 15 million. In Kenya coffee is one of the important cash crop it is grown in large scale plantation of 42000ha(2017-2017) as Well as small scale from holders 12800ha from (2017-2018) giving a total production about 50 ,000 tones’ annually .In kipkelion west has more than 1500 hectors of land under coffee, the growing in kipkelion areas was increase at 0.4 acres per year and is expected to increase, farmers experience shortage of coffee seedlings, diseases, lack of fixed price, lack of proper information in order to prevent pre and post-harvest, losses 30%of coffee goes wasted due to lack of steady market. The different factors which influence the quality of coffee berries include harvesting methods, processing method and also storage conditions. The main research for this project is to know the solution of the factors that       


during introduction of coffee farming in kipkelion west there was high production which provide income to farmers and to the ministry of agriculture, also improve the standard of living, recently the quality of coffee berries goes down due to type of soil, low coffee price also influence, yield harvesting methods, processing method and storage unit condition.

1.3 justification of study

This research will help direct interaction with farmers in coffee production, The ministry play role in solving the sustainability by empowering farmer through knowledge and better solution to grow the best quality beans, better harvesting with less waste of fruits will help to increase the yield compared with old farming practice this help yield and production have increased household income and improve live hood. The farmers in kipkelion notice improvement in flower Fruit’s development and ripening after using coffee from ministry of agriculture. The extension officer will know the factors that influence the quality of coffee berries by doing extension service to farmers.


  1. To assess the impact of pre and post-harvest processing practice on the quality of both wet and dry processed coffee
  2. To identify factors related to coffee berries problem in kipkelion


  1.     What are the impact of pre and post-harvest processing practice on the quality of both wet and dry processed coffee?
  2. What are the facts related to coffee berries problem in kipkelion?


The study is undertaken in kipkelion coffee supply area and investigate the contribution of coffee and implement appropriate coffee quality maintaining and improvement among the farmers .The study also provide valuable information to stakeholder which are interested to help coffee farmers in kipkelion areas to meet standard and even opportunity to improve quality of the coffee, it helps to improvement in the study areas for the smallholder coffee producer’s.


        The study focused on the factors that influence the quality of coffee berries inkipkelion by interview farmers in the coffee value in kipkelion west, the study was conducted by interview, the study had some errors despite some expected limitations of the study and illiteracy among farmers.






   2.1 coffee qualities

     Quality is the main determined of coffee consumption the process to meet requirement of the customer interest, it deals with price, taste and flavor. The coffee quality determine price and usefulness of a given quality of coffee, it is important to consider factors of coffee quality as disease resistance and productivity in coffee development coffee market was established to help to maintaining coffee quality and marketing.

  2.2 Harvesting methods

   The factors influencing coffee quality is harvesting methods hand picking coffee bean is one method for high quality of packing ripe red Berries’ it is traditional and produce the best quality coffee. The maturation also influence on coffee quality picking of red berries give the best coffee caffeine on coffee is found in bean harvested at immature stage or unripe and over. Ripe coffee berries.

         2.3 post -harvest processing

 The coffee quality are correctly determined by the post -harvest treatment either wet or dry processing,mayur fruits are used for wet processing and dry from different maturation stage. The different in flavor between wet and dry processed coffee are the results of different in metabolic activities that take place in each processing, in post-harvest the only fully ripe coffee berries are used for wet processing. Coffee is prepared using a dry processed system a good method to be used berries are harvested and put in the sun, farmer select ripe Berries by hand picking the premature are harvested and sold to local market. 

      2.4 Pre-harvest

     Two much application of nitrogen fertilizer brought to poor quality than from a field with no fertilizer, excess of nitrogen increase the caffeine content results in a more bitter taste the content of beans are not affected by the level of phosphorus, calcium and magnesium in the soil but lack o zinc will lead to the production of small grey-coloured beans. Hi concentration of calcium and potassium in manure. The best and disease attack can affect the Berries’ or cause them to deteriorate which will produce immature or even damage berries it also results in lower quality coffee beans they bore feed lay egg inside the coffee and cause the quality.

       2.5 Dry processing

In these processing method, the soft pulp part of the cherry together with the skin is turn off to open sun as soon as harvest. This is a nature process and is the simple and the harvest cherries classified than are dried. Mostly usually in the sun or the fruit are allowed to remain on the tree past the full ripe stage and in partially dried before harvesting. Coffee is prepared using a dry processed system which is the first method by which the fresh cherries are harvested and sun-dried as a whole after drying the cherries are sold to local collectors and Co-operative.

         2.6 wet processing

The harvested ripe red coffee cherries are pulped the residue of the pulp are degraded by fermentation. Fermentation enhanced glucose turn over from anaerobic fermentation in the coffee endosperm there by decrease in glucose and fructose concentration with washed coffee processed, final quality among others is greatly dependent upon the fermentation process. It has confirmed that under water soaking following by dry fermentation this two stage fermentation enhanced the appearance of both row and roast coffee compered to dry fermentation only post fermentation soaking for 24 hours produce better raw and roast appearance than either 8-16hours soaking but extending the soak for 48 hours did not cause any further improvement to the raw and reduced the roast quality under soaking of washed Wet parchment for a specific period was reported take more time, shade fermentation tank help to achieve uniform fermentation process and better quality coffee than unshed one.

2.7 Genetic factors

  As harvesting methods, post-harvest procedure and the physiology of the plant affect coffee quality, it genetic origin also greatly influence coffee quality it also revealed that coffee quality depend on genetic makeup and genes control the production of chemical compound that behave as small agents of either directly or small precursor expressed during the roasting process.

2.8 coffee storage

Length and condition of beans storage also affects coffee quality, storage under high relative humidity and warm condition increase bean moisture content and consequently reduce quality in term of raw and roasted appearance. Regardless of the post-harvest process the beans are stored with a moisture content of this 11-12% and at this stage they are suitable for roasting. This process is considered one of the most important steps in the development of the flavor of the coffee, the relatively high content of glucose present in dry and wet processed green coffee stored beyond 4-5 month decrease market.

2.9 climate and soil factors

 The environment has also strong influence on coffee quality altitude, daily temperature fluctuation amount and distribution of rainfall, rainfall and sunshine distribution have a strong Influence of flowering bean expansion and ripening. The slow downed ripening process of coffee berries at high elevation or under shading, allow more time for complete bean filing yield bean that are denser and far more intense in flavor. The role of soil type has been well studied and it is generous admitted that the most acidic coffee quality .Acidity has been correlated with coffee grown at very high altitude and in mineral rich volcanic soil the better quality can be found at higher altitude, while low land coffee have flung to be somewhat bland, moreover coffee from high altitude areas was more acidic with better aroma and flavor, factor such as total  rainfall, relative humidity, maximum -minimum temperature with effect on water vapor rub content of air and storage duration greatly influence storability and quality of stored coffee. \

2.9.1 Institutional factors

The national coffee Board of Kenya was the first institution responsible for coffee with the aim of upgrading coffee quality, stimulating cooperative production establishing market associations conduct research and processing and marketing. The coffee plantation was organized under a control of government, high yield and wide adaption varieties to release for major coffee grown area of the country. They was no extensive coffee quality research conduct in the country except on fermentation, drying depth and time of storage. According to their report the smallholder coffee farmers in particular could not able to make use of appropriate input and implement tool such as pruning shear and drying material.

2.9.2 socio-economic factors

Factors determine the adoption of technologies are more complex in case of perennial crop like coffee than in case of annual crops, the farm size of, input technical difficulties and institutions support like the extension service determine the adoption of technologies, reported that age, gender, family size, extension attendance of training and experience in coffee farming did not significance influence .According to their report adoption of improve varieties, literacy to research center positively influence farmers

Sex of the household head. Many evidence show that female have less access to improve technologies credit and extension service this show that male -head have better access for information than female house hold that help for adoption of improved agriculture technologies.

Education level of the household head. Adoption of improve practice by farmers is necessary based on his/her capacity to access, process and utilize information related to improve technologies.

2.9.3 Coffee shade tree

Shade tree is one main factors influencing the quality of coffee bean, fruit grown under shade are larger in size than those grown under full sun conditions, shade has different effects depending on the geographical of coffee tree in higher altitude shade had a effect on acidity body, sweetness and preferences of the breakage but no effect found on the physical therapy quality on the bean, Recently the result indicated that the shade improve the appearance of green and roasted coffee bean as well as acidity and body of the brew promoting slower and balance filling and uniform ripening of the observed show that the shade of increased sugar concentration which i.e. on an important factors in creating the small of coffee.

2.9.3 Management practice

     Coffee grown with heavy application of nitrogen fertilizer has poor, lighter and thinner quality than that from unfertilized field on excess of nitrogen increase the caffeine content results in a more bitter taste of the brew. The caffeine and chloroganic acid content of the beans are not affected by the level of phosphorus, calcium, potassium and magnesium in the soil lack of zing will lead to the production of small light grey-coloured beans, the high concentration of calcium and magnesium in the beans are is associated with a bitter and hard test, the livestock manure result in an increase percentage of undesirable brown colored pencils bean affect was associated with a magnesium deficiency include by high potassium is content pest and disease attack can affect the influence the quality of coffee berries in kipkelion west sub-County, kericho county                      



3.1 Introduction

This section discusses the methodology that was used in the study including the research design, site of the study, target population and sampling techniques. This section also contains information on the research instrument utilized in data collection as well as the target population and sampling size in which the research adopted in order to generate data.

3.2 Area of study

The study was carried out in kipkelion sub-County kericho county, kericho county is located a mid-altitude 0.23oC South and longitude 35o 02 and 35o 40 east between the equator. The county is bounded by Bomet County to south, Nandi county to the North west, Nakuru County to East and Baringo County to the North East it also bounded to Kisumu County. The county is blessed with fertile soil and reliable rainfall with low annual evaporation rate, the lowest altitude is at 1800m while the highest is the 3000m a bove the sea level Temperature range between 10oC and 29oC with average of 17oC.

3.3 Research design

 For field survey 100 household farmers was randomly selected follow sample size determination procedure of probability proportional to size techniques 31coffee farmers were purposefully selected from the farmers to represent and interviewed in the area of koisagat, Kipkelion town ,chepkechei and kapngetuny. The sample size and the number of interviewed respondent were determined on comprehending that information was presenting of both male and female.

3.4 Sampling procedure

     This study used purpose and convenience sample techniques purposive sample was used to investigate and identify coffee quality associated factoring study areas a total of 31 coffee bean sample 8 from each area were collected for bean physical quality characteristic. A sample of 120kg red cherries were collected randomly from four areas and 8 sample from each study area for wet and dry coffee type and the sample were divided into two to represent using the recommended method of dry and wet processing. During harvesting health and red ripe cherries were picked by hand from the areas and the sample were processed i was both recommended wet and dry processing method.

3.5 Data collection

During the period of data connection the researcher sought permission from farmers and proceeded with data collection after explaining them the need for study. The data connection in line with the items on the collection instrument and sampling techniques, done by interview guide open ended questionnaires which took a week within the time of delivery and collection four group discussion of six members to eight member from group were guide by research, oral interview were conducted following the interview guide..

3.6 summary

This chapter explain the area where the study was conducted, it also describe the research design, sampling procedure and the way in which data was collected and analyzed.



 4.1 Introduction

This chapter present data analysis, finding and results interpretation the main aim of this study was to determine the factors that influencing the quality of coffee berries. The specific objectives of was to assess the impact of pre and post-harvest processing practice on the quality of both wet and dry processed coffee. They were also to investigate and identify factors related to coffee berries problem.

4.2 influence of education level

Most of the farmers 68% were found in the age group between 30 and 50 years and results from this study show that both men and women participate in coffee production with the highest percentage 97%of the respondent being male. Regarding the education level out of 31 sample farmers 42%of them were illiterate and only few farmers are joining the secondary cycle primary and high school in their education level.

Table 1

Influence of education level

VariableContinuous variable Categories of variable %No
Age of the farmersMl Mix Mean SD 25 60 3.4.7 9.8  
Male 96.8830
Female 518.1
Education level   
Illiterate 1341.9
Grade 7-12 1445.2
Farming experience in coffee52518.47.5  
Coffee land holding in a hectare03 2 0.6 0.4  
Number of coffee tree5 25 18.4 7.5  

4.3 influence of coffee production

The average yield of the coffee 7 tones’ per hectare of coffee that low compared to previous years, it was observed that there is huge yield variation between farmer reasons of this great diversity is due age of coffee tree, management practices they type of coffee varieties. The result show that age of coffee tree show that 58% of the farmers owned old coffee tree (>15yaers) while of them owned coffee tree less than eight years old.


4.4 influence of disease and insect pest management

Majority of coffee farmers 77% respondent that influence of disease and insect pest CBD, CLR and dieback, died back 28% followed by CBD and CLR the survey also revealed that farmers market of kipkelion are not using type of chemical control.


Additionally stem bore, berry borer, ant are major insect pest attacked the crop. This study show that about 54% respondent face stem bore fellow by ant 18% .The farmers respondent Salt application of different traditional management practice such as addition of ash around coffee tree killing the larva Mutually by insert sting into hole, such traditional control method may not be adequate for effective control.

4.5 influence of weed management

In the study areas, farmers commonly practice hand weed, cultivation and hoeing together for control weed from their field. Many of respondent employed only cultivation and hoeing and the farmers did not use herbicides as well as slashing the methods of weed control.

Table 2

  Weed control method use by farmers

Weed control methodNo%
Cultivation only826
Cultivation followed hoeing1032
Hand weed followed hoeing413
Hand weed followed cultivation followed hoeing310

4.5 influence of coffee pruning

In this study it was discovered that more than 90% of farmers practice at least one type of pruning but others 10% did not do any type of pruning. The majority of coffee plantations in the farmers hand were greater than 15yrs old. Only 7% of respondent coffee farmers practice stumping pruning.

4.6 influence of extension service provided to farmers.

This section mainly focuses on the work of extension service to farmers; the results revealed that 67% of the coffee farmers had received extension service on production management and improve coffee variety and type of service. The services were given by (Gok) 85% represent ministry of agriculture research center 10% and 5% from the farmers of the Area.

4.7 periods within the time of payment of farmers

This section presents the time taken for the factors to make necessary payment to the farmers after delivery of coffee berries.

Table 3 time of payment of farmers

 FrequencyPercentValid percentCumulative percent
One month2643.343.3100.0
One year610.010.048.3
Two weeks711.711.411.7
6 months1626.726.738.3
Unknown period58.38.356.7

From the table, it was discovered that majority of farmers are paid after one month of the delivery of their coffee berries to the factors most of them not knowing what when exactly they will be paid 43.3% reported to be paid after one month 10.0% after one year 11.7 after two weeks 26.7% after 6 months while 5.3 indicated on unknown period for their payment.

4.8 influence of harvesting and drying

The revealed that the majority of the farmers were exercising traditional harvesting and post -harvest practice 75%fruit on the tree were red and some farmers start harvesting methods when 50%of fruit were red. This two stage fermentation early -mature fruit were dried on the tree and later maturity were not ripe, farmer collect all ripe, practice like harvest when red cherry observed the month, selected this red cherries were only by collect hand picking 45% and drying on plastic sheet 74%.


4.9 Influence of soil characteristics

This section sought to find out the influence of soil characteristics

Table 4.9 influence of soil characteristics

Soil parameterFragranceAromaAcidityFlavorBodyAfter tasteOval
Available p0.2290.2840.1150.2570.1920.3010.239

   4.9.1 Influence of fertilizer application

This is study determine the rate of fertilizer applied by farmers

Table 5 Rate of fertilizer applied for by farmers .

FertilizerAmount applied by farmers
Organic fertilizer application32612.24
FYm +compost32612.20
Inorganic fertilizer application3.2157.90

From the table above show that most famers Use organic fertilizer such as farmyard manure are compost to coffee tree. They apply from 3 to 31 tons per hectare of farmyard manure or compost. Only 29% farmers apply chemical fertilizer under coffee tree. DAP is widely applied fertilizer than UREA and the mixture of them is small amount.

4.9.2 Influence in packaging and storing

From this study area show that farmers used both sisal sack and plastic or polyethylene bag as packing material, results show that 94% of the interview farmers lacked the sisal sack and force to use polyethylene bag since it is easily affordable and cheap to farmers, it also Show that farmers lack storage facility like were house which is considered as coffee quality deteriorating factors, 96%of interview farmers face weight loss of their coffee after a long period of storage which said that 2-5kg loss.

Table 6 packing and storing

Harvesting methods  
Selected peaking1445
Stop harvesting1755
Drying method  
On the bare floor826
On plastic sheet floor2974
Packing material  
Sisal sack26
Polyethylene bag2994
Storage period  
Sale immediately after harvest and dried423
3-6 months1342
Up to one year26
Waiting until price increase619
Storage place  
Residence home2490

4.9.3 Coffee market

Most farmers Sell dried coffee berries to local trader in their village market, currently only few farmers sell red coffee, most farmer 64% sell their coffee portion by portion rather selling one in bulk because they want to wait until high price come. The responded said that, price of coffee was very low and fluctuates from price unshelled dried coffee. This price is low when compared to the previous years (2017-2011)

 Table 8 Analysis of coffee market

Selling red cherries723
Selling place  
Village market2271
Sub county619
Selling to whom  
Local collectors1652
Primary Co-operative26
Selling type  
In bulk1032
Portion by portion2065
Both in bulk and portion by portion13


Summary, findings, conclusion and recommendations

5.1 Fertilizer application

The finding show that farmers proper local compost by mixing farmyard manure, crop residue and use it for their field. This help to improve the action of microorganisms and improve macro and micro nutrients availability, it work as beneficial soil condition and improved the physical, chemical and biological attribute of the ground. This has positive effect on the quality of coffee bean produce from the report that good grown and should be applied one, it can nourish the plant for two to three  Consecutive years compered to commercial inorganic fertilizer which need abundance of composition from other crop intercropped with coffee, farmers manure their coffee field every year. With time to inorganic fertilizer high cost, scarcity and timely unavailability inorganic fertilizer force most farmer carry to apply mineral inorganic commercial fertilizer to their coffee farm, some farmers number of farm apply DAB and UREA. Farmers believe that applying mineral fertilizer to coffee berries was expected to be increase  yielded well as physical appearance of coffee bean produce but since it is expensive it is difficult to apply rater I they prefer to use organic which is locally available in the area, due to time unavailability of inorganic fertilizer and absent of credits system farmer faced not use mineral fertilizer instead they depends more on organic fertilizer for their coffee field using chemical fertilizer in coffee highly effect chemical contents of coffee bean, farmers use organic in manure.

5.2 weed management

Farmers of the study areas control weed in coffee by combination of different methods of weed control. Weed was controlled by cultivation ,hoeing 3 and hand weeding  and labor, farmers not any farm use herbicides Chemical Romance for weed throughout the year and using control practice at such as digging, hoeing  pull out the weed by hand and sometimes cultivation, slashing which is the most common weed control method in other coffee grown area is not implement in this study area farmer carry do not use herbicides because it is not affordable for them and farm do not practice slashing as means of weed cultural Method of weed control is recommended indigenous knowledge practice by all farmers of the Area as a result it improves the quality of coffee because of they use herbicides is residue has a effects on the quality of coffee. Proper control of weed usually has a positive effect on bean size and flavor.

5.3 coffee pruning

Coffee tree pruning is an arm extremely important to pre harvest management activity for reduce incidence of disease, modify air movement within the plantation which in turn reduce leaf drying time by improve a physical quality of the coffee bean. Most farmer in the area as got from the interview practice hand and desucking remove dead branches cut the top of the Tree while harvest for tree height management when needed to be arise are the major type of the production Old coffee the help the tree in improving it yield and bears quality does not highly practice by farmers coffee pruning can usually have a positive effect on bean size and flavor.

5.4 extension service

Extensionservice supposed to have a direct influence on the behavior of the farmers to intensity and improve efficiency to make use of opportunity when there is contact with extensions agent. The are no other services such as suppliers input credit service in order to reduce selling red cherries to local trader that can help the farmers to maintain their coffee quality, support as an extension service determine the adoption of improve agriculture technologies, results from survey revealed that most farmer get extensions support from some stakeholder widely from coffee board of well firm extension export from agriculture office and research center it also Show that support get from them is not enough in order to help, majority are poor and illiterate agriculture extension would play a significant rule in assisting them in identifying and analysis their production and market problem and help them with awareness  of opportunity for improvement effective of the other inputs in production as well partly relied on the availability of sound extension service at the community level


5.5 coffee harvesting and drying

Most farmer practice strip harvesting in which collecting red unripe and dried cherries together one or twice in harvesting month, the harvesting cherries then sun dried on bare floor or plastic sheet, they did not widely practice selective red pick technique. Their reason this the select harvesting required a lot of labor which increases of cost of production and select the price of the coffee This practice affect the quality of coffee in harvesting treatment if only ripe cherries are picked the wrong quality beans are small but harvesting cost fall, the farmers should move away from selected hand picking and into strip harvesting system to maximize their profit. Farmer of the study areas aware that drying coffee on bare ground can highly deteriorate the quality of coffee but farmers still practice it. Farmers experience crop loss and reduction income simply because of inadequate pre and post-harvest measures, poor harvest practice, such as stopping and collections dropped fruit from the ground improper post-harvest processing other practice such as drying on bare ground are improper storage reduce quality and increase loss by promoting uneven moisture level inducing fungus and fermentation and foreign material.

5.6 coffee picking and storing

Picking and storing place and duration are the most important and essential factor required for using the correct packing material and adequate is essential since the coffee bean are living entities in which their viably depend mainly on storage conditions influence by packing material because different packing can have affection coffee quality. Currently farmers use sisal or polyethylene bag as packing material but most farmer have been used polyethylene bag since his cost of the recommended sisal sack, it is sometime necessary to store coffee for a long period in which length of storage effect the quality for price of the produce attain better price. This means coffee in living family members for long time which affect the quality because in the house may affect the quality that is present in the flavor damage and the incident of existing damage during store, long time storage under high relative humidity and warm condition also appearance as well as liquor, store coffee for a long period can reduce the weight of the coffee by losing it moisture content to below the 11.5%this show for a long period can affect both quality and quantity of the coffee.

5.7 coffee markets

Coffee marketing is one of the common problem that can affect the quality of coffee in the kipkelion because without no fair price for defend prepared Coffee quality the predate in quality. Most farmer sell their produce to local collectors and only few farmers start sell their coffee to primary cooperative this show that farmers lack important of cooperative .currently farmers selling price was highly fluctuation and low especially in the year of 2017/2019 price of coffee was low compared to previous years this is due to imbalance between demand and supply as well as recommended to maintain quality of produce to paid good quality harvest and dried coffee separately.

5.8 coffee disease and insect pest

Coffee disease and insect pest are also another factor that can affect the quality of coffee yield .in kipkelion since a long time ago coffee has been highly treat hen by different type of disease more diseases identify by farmers are dieback, CBD, CLR and CWD Other include stem bore and ants are most important .the quality of coffee have effect consider. The coffee tree becomes more susceptible to the pest when there is a prolonged dry Season during production Year. The are no any recommended pesticides but recently some farmers respondent that of they apply oil tar to control problems of ant. When observed the effect of disease on coffee quality it can say that, they occurrence of disease could lead to poor quality coffee that give off and distasteful order .when CBD attack the fruit in it most advanced stage of growth cause several damage to the crop and attract quality.

5.9 conclusions

The aim of this stud was to examine the factors that influencing the quality of coffee. To achieve this objective two main research question with four sub question each about pre and post-harvest practice and coffee quality control strategies, the number of farmers were interviewed for answering the research by use of questionnaires simple size procedure ,inadequate coffee production and marketing technologies mostly extension service, price fluctuation due to the quality of coffee farmers unable to considerable require value from the crop, poor coffee processing infrastructure, primary for drying and hulling, tend to reduce the quality climate change contribute to low quality and disease challenge price instability and lack of reliable market information. Study indicate that among the pre and post-harvest Factor, low level of education, limited used of the coffee shade tree, unpracticed of recycling of old coffee tree prevalence disease and insect pest, coffee farming experience, bad harvesting, drying packaging and storing practice found to be significant factors affecting coffee quality.


From the finding and conclusion given above the major factor that influencing the quality of coffee and price of coffee in kipkelion west Sub-County Kericho County were identify. The following recommendation was drown as short and long term strategy.

1. Improve coffee pre and post-harvest management practices

The quality and production of this coffee bring benefit for all farmers as well as for the ministry of agriculture. Measures to be considered to improve the system by paying high attention by farmers to following coffee field management practices

(a) Improve shade tree practice by using improved recommended shade tree species selected by research center

(b) Use improve specialty variety recently released by research center

(2) Improve coffee harvesting and post-harvest processing practice

Most farmer in the study areas still use the traditional methods of coffee harvesting by drying on bare ground, packed with polyethylene bag and store in a home for long periods of time, this stage coffee quality is highly effected by contaminated by taking a taste of anything it come into contact, providing adequate training on a continuous basis well increase the quality the price because good quality coffee get good grade that earn high price as a result of increased volume of export. The recommendation measures include.

(a) Improve harvesting techniques by only harvesting red Cherry at the farm.

(b) Improve drying techniques by stopping drying coffee on bare ground

(c)  Improve packing material (using only sisal sack) and store coffee after it well dried in good place for a short period of time.

5.9.2 Suggestion for further research

This study only determines the factors that influencing the quality of coffee berries in kipkelion west Sub-County kericho County. The gather final decision, future studies should get into the Movement   to strengthen coffee research in order to improve farmer production and reduce risk, increase Market efficient, a focus on practical farmer research and efforts to development of coffee varieties in the area should be supported and improved.

Conceptual framework


                                          Factors influencing the quality of coffee barries

          Post -harvest practice                                                                         production practice

 Harvesting practice        coffee shade and pruning    drying, packing and storing         weed ,pest,fertilizer


Coffee grading

This conceptual framework is golden by the research objectives that were used. To assess the impact of pre and post-harvest processing practice on the quality of both wet and dry processed coffee in kipkelion west sub-County kericho county .it also to identify factors related to coffee berries problem in kipkelion west.

Research frame work

Research problems

Research objectives

                   Field study                                                                                                            desk study

                                                                                                                                                Literature review

                       Data collection                                                                                                             


                       Result finding

                                                                          Conclusion and recommendation


    Gender: male (   ) female (   )

    Age 18-35 (   ) 36-60 (   ) 60 and above




  1: When was coffee introducing in kericho county, kipkelion areas? And who introduced this coffee?

2: What factors led to the rise of the coffee Co-operative societies in kipkelion Kericho County?

3: What were the goals of coffee millers in kipkelion?…

4: What were objective of coffee millers?

5: Have the objective been achieved? If yes, what achievement have been made?

6: If no, what are some factors hampered the achievement of the objective?

7: What are some of the challenges faced by coffee farmers in kipkelion, kericho county liberalization of the coffee sector? Describe them…..

    Study Budget

Material /service

Amount in (ksh)



Transport 3077days


Internet bundles




Photography, typing, printing, binding


Phone call


Supervisor allowance


Total 147,500


Agwanda. C. 1998 fervor. An ideal selection criterion for the genetic improvement of quality in Arabica coffee. in the processing of international scientific collective on coffee


Agwanda c. o. Barada p C and Cherri related hybrids of Arabic coffee in malt local field trains accessed on 06/07/2014

Bayatea B. Berboxa B. Aroyq j. C fonesca. C. Devinerx. For cayot.B. And cilas C. 2005 breeding for resistance to coffee berry disease in Arabica coffee. Progress since 1973 .proceeding of the worship on control of coffee. Disease in Kenya

Bahabu. W. Arabia .s. mugussi. M. and Solomon. I. 2008 coffee influence of shade during fermentation Arabic. Coffee progress. Since 1973.proceed of on the cup quality of Arabic of coffee 21st international scent conference on coffee science September 2006

Abu. T. and teddy Kenya 2013 coffee annual report gain report number k-1302 Kenya available at accessed on 06/08/2014

Alex w. N. Kondnek A. G (2014) Distortion to agriculture inactive in Kenya” policy research work paper 45 work bank wish

Borne C (1997) an experience with Coffee production in by Kenya 1933-48 Journal of Africa economic development history no 8 Pp1985-209

Balky G absw D 2004 challenges facing agriculture extension agent a case study vo 2.3

Baran D. L collir j. and w (1989) Fiscal response to a temporary trade shock the after mat of the Kenya coffee boom “journals of the work bank economy

 Review vo. 3 and 3 pp 359-375

Bohnan, m, and barilchollo j. C (1996) “rent seek and international commodity Agreement the case of coffee ” journal of economic development and cultural change vo, 44 no 2pp 39.404

Brown. O. and sandarqc (2007) Global supply chain and smallholder farmer international institute for sustainability development Canada pp2-25

2008 economic relation between Kenya and china 1963-2007

Department of international development (DfiD 2088) quality and poverty reduction the rule of agriculture “A AfiD policy paper

Danianopoulin R (2005) Industrial deregence in Kenya and Uganda coffee section key indicators data

Ketanja A.  M (2002) coffee price stabilization In Kenya qs q policy option Kenya coffee 65(257) MDA (1995) second coffee improvement project status report as 30 April 1988 ministry of agriculture Nairobi.

Leave a Comment