TITLE: FABRICATION OF HOT WATER SOLAR COLLECTOR
PRINTED BY: CHEPKOECH CYNTHIA
CENTER NAME: EMINING TECHNICAL TRAINING INSTITUTE
DEPARTMENT; BUILDING AND CIVIL ENGINEERING
PAPER NO: 305/316
INDEX NO: 5621030077
COURSE: CRAFT IN PLUMBING
PRINTED TO: KENYA NATIONAL EXAMINATAION COUNCIL IN FULFILMENT FOR AWARD OF CRAFT CERTIFICATE IN PLUMBING
SUPERVISOR: MR PETER NJUHO
EXAM SERIES: JULY 2022
INSTALLATION OF HOT WATER SOLAR SYSTEM.. 7
TABLE OF MATERIALS AND QUANTITIES. 7
DETAILS OF HOT WATER SOLAR COLLECTOR.. 14
ISOMETRIC VIEW OF SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM.. 15
To say there are a lot of variables in installing solar water-heating systems would be an understatement. As you learned in Lesson 3, there are a number of different system types, and the components used will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. Every home is a little different, and getting the plumbing from the collectors to the storage tank may require removal of plaster or sheet rock, which then must be replaced. You may be faced with building a pipe chase in which to run the piping.
In this lesson, we will focus on installing a basic closed-loop solar water-heating system. The links below will provide more insight into system installation. Before the actual solar system installation can take place, a site survey must be done to answer questions such as:
- Can the roof support the dead load of the solar collectors and the live load of the installation crew?
- Is the roof properly oriented with enough un-shaded area and surface that does not need to be replaced in the near future?
- Can the roof work be done safely?
- Is there room in the building for the storage tank and associated hardware?
- Can the plumbing lines be installed between the storage tank and the collectors without a significant remodeling effort
I CHEPKOECH CYNTHIA do declare that this project is my own work and it has been presented to any college for an award.
Mr. Peter Njuo
I dedicate this project to my Dad RICHARD RUTO for his financial support, encouragement and his advice throughout my learning period. I also dedicate to my Teacher Mr. Vincent who acted friendly and of much help in my studies may God bless him abundantly.
I will greatly and sincerely appreciate my Mother for Her willingness and gear financial support for this period. This also goes my lecturer Mr. Korir for his guidance and supporting my studies. I won’t forget MERCY JEPKOSGEI my great friend and his family for their support during my studies since they originate from the area I schooled inI would also appreciate the role played by the department of plumbing in my lectures great work .Last but not least I wish to thank my family and friends for their great support throughout my course God bless you all I would also appreciate the role played by the department of plumbing in my lectures great work .Last but not least I wish to thank my family and friends for their great support throughout my course God bless you all.
Hot water is essential for industries and house holds, as well as for smooth running of hospital. A novel in expensive flat plate solar water heater was designed using black Plexiglas instead of the conventionally preferred material of copper or metal. This design differs from conventional solar water heaters as black Plexiglas plates are used as energy insulator as well as absorber. It function as an insulator retains solar energy, the direct thermal contact between the plates and water results in elevated thermal transfer. This design was activated to reduce the loss due to theft in developing nations by not having metal parts. Based on initial laboratory scale tests and theoretical analysis, a solar water heater with a surface was designed fabricated and tested. The test results showed that the solar water heater was able to increase the outlet water temperature.
|REQUEST FOR QUATION OF MATERIALS INSTALLATION OF HOT WATER SOLAR SYSTEM TABLE OF MATERIALS AND QUANTITIES|
|NO||ITEM DESCRIPTION||UNIT||QTY REQUIRED||UNIT COST IN KSH||TOTAL COST IN KSH||PURPOSE|
|½” PPR PIPE||ROLL||1||1200||1200||HOT WATER SUPPLY|
|¾” BMS PIPE||PCS||3||300||900||COLD WATER SUPPLY|
|½”COPPER PIPE||ROLL||1||1200||1200||HEATING WATER|
|1” PVC PIPES||PCS||5||200||1000||COLD WATER WASTE|
|¾’’PPR PIPES||ROLL||1||1000||1000||HOT WATER SUPPLY|
|1’’ PVC PIPES||PCS||3||150||450||COLD WATER WASTE|
|½’’ COPPER ELBOW||PCS||4||70||280||JOIN COPPER PIPES|
|½’’ COPPER UNION||PCS||1||80||80||JOIN COPPER PIPES|
|½’’ NIPPLE LONG THREADED||PCS||1||150||150||REMOVE WATER FROM TANK|
|½’’ GI SOCKET||PCS||1||80||80||JOIN BMS PIPES TANK|
|½’’ G1 BACKNUT||PCS||2||50||100||PREVENT LEAKAGE|
|½’’ PPR MALE ADAPTER||PCS||2||120||240||REDUCE PIPES|
|½’’ UNION PPR||PCS||3||30||90||JOIN PPR PIPES|
|¾’’ UNION PPR||PCS||2||40||80||JOIN PPR PIPES|
|½’’ PPR ELBOW||PCS||5||50||250||JOIN PPR PIPES|
|¾’’ PPR ELBOW||PCS||4||60||240||JOIN PPR PIPES|
|PRESSURE GAUGE||PCS||1||1500||1500||CONTROL HEATING|
|SALTY VALVES||PCS||2||650||1300||CONTROL FLOW|
|NON RETURN VALVES||PCS||3||700||2100||CONTROL BACK FLOW|
|CONTROL PANNEL||PCS||1||2000||2000||CONTROL HEATING|
|WATER PUMPS||PCS||2||6000||12000||PUMP WATER|
|DRAIN VALVES||PCS||2||500||1000||CONTROL DRAINAGE|
|AIR VALVES||PCS||2||250||500||CONTROL SMELL|
|EXPANSION RESET||PCS||1||1000||1000||CONTROL HEATING|
|1000 L COLD WATER CISTERN||PCS||1||6000||6000||STORE COLD WATER|
|200L SOLAR CYLINDER||PCS||1||7000||7000||FOR HEATING|
|CONVENTIONAL CYLINDER||PCS||1||6000||6000||FOR HEATING|
|3-5 MM SHEET GLASS||ROLL||2||250||500||SHELTER SOLAR|
|SEALING STRIP||PCS||2||200||400||ABSORPTION OF HEAT|
|2’’ PVC PIPES||PCS||3||200||600||DRAIN WATER|
|PVC VENT PIPES||PCS||2||250||500||DRAIN WATER|
The basic steps to install a closed-loop solar water-heating system are:
- Mount the solar collectors on the roof
- Install the solar storage tank and heat exchanger next to conventional water heater
- Install the piping and pump for the glycol loop
- Install the water piping
- Install the controls
- Fill the system
- Insulate the water and glycol lines
Step 1: Mount the solar collectors on the roof
When mounting collectors, make as few roof penetrations as possible. In some cases, the collectors can be mounted on a roof and the piping run through a vertical wall instead of through the roof. Seal all roof penetrations with silicone sealant. Different manufacturers will supply slightly different hardware for mounting the collectors on the roof. Follow the manufacturer’s directions carefully.
Locate the rafters to which you will be attaching the collectors. You may be able to do this with a stud finder, or you may have to go inside the attic space and drill a small hole next to a rafter to locate it. Drill the hole, and then run a small wire out of the hole to help locate it on the outside. Remember to seal the hole with silicone sealant.
Rafters are usually 16 inches or 24 inches center to center. If you cannot attach the collector mounting hardware to the rafter itself, you must install a spanner block between the rafters and mount the collector hardware to the sleeper. Do not rely on the roof sheathing to support the solar collectors. Be sure that the collector mounting hardware is securely attached to the framing members
Use the manufacturers recommended flashing around piping going through the roof, or use pipe flashing. Install the flashing with roof sealant to be sure it will not leak.
If you are using sweated copper plumbing fittings, protect the roof from the torch with a flame-resistant mat.
Remember to install an air vent at the top of the collector
Step 2: Install the storage tank and heat exchange next to the conventional water heater
Place the solar storage tank near the conventional water heater. If the heat exchanger is internal to the storage tank, make sure that the glycol loop connections to the heat exchanger and the cold and hot water connections are accessible. If the heat exchanger is external to the storage tank, it is likely that it is supported by the plumbing. Install unions at the storage tank and heat exchanger connections so that the piping will not have to be cut if the tank or heat exchanger ever needs to be replaced.
Solar water-heating systems use both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Despite being a colder, northern climate, Pennsylvania still offers an adequate solar resource. Generally, if the installation site is un-shaded from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. and faces south, it’s a good candidate for a solar water-heating system.
Step 3: Install the piping and pump for the glycol loop
In most systems, the piping for the glycol loop is no bigger than -inch pipe. Assemble the entire glycol loop without solder so you can be sure the entire loop will go together, and then solder the entire loop. Be sure to install unions at the pump, so if it ever needs to be replaced, it can be replaced without cutting the piping.
The pump should be installed at the lowest part of the glycol loop. The pump outlet is plumbed to the piping leading to the solar collectors on the roof. A check valve must be installed at the outlet of the pump so that when the pump is turned off, the glycol will not flow backwards around the loop. An expansion tank must be installed, and a pressure gauge should be installed to monitor the pressure in the glycol loop. A pressure relief valve must be installed in the glycol loop. The outlet from the pressure relief valve should be piped to a drain. This pressure relief valve should be a boiler relief valve, and the operating pressure should be no more than 30 psi. Optional Equipment:
- A ball valve or circuit setter may be installed to control the flow in the loop
- A flow meter also may be installed in the glycol loop
- Thermometers on the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger will help to monitor system perform an
- Step 4: Install the water piping
plumb the cold water energy in the house to the inlet of the solar storage tank, and the outlet of the solar storage tank to the inlet of the conventional water heater. Install valves and unions on the inlets and outlets of the tanks. If the heat exchanger is external to the solar storage tank, you may choose to use a natural convection loop between the heat exchanger and the solar storage tank, or you may install a pump to force water through the heat exchanger and tank. If you choose to use natural convection, you should use a large pipe—at least 1-1/4″ copper—to get adequate flow through the heat exchanger. If you choose to install a pump to force water through the heat exchanger, you can use -inch copper pipe.
- · Step 5: Install the controls
The differential controller must be installed to sense the temperature difference between the water at the bottom of the solar storage tank and the glycol at the top of the solar collectors. The sensors can be attached to the pipes with hose clamps.
There are some optional additions to this part of the system that, while adding additional costs, will add convenience and possibly safety to the system. Optional equipment includes:
- Bypass valve
- Tempering valve
- High-temperature radiator loop
Step 6: Fill the system
Check the glycol loop for leaks by filling the glycol loop with water. The circulation pump will probably be too small to fill the system, so you will need a fill pump that can provide enough pressure to lift the water (and glycol) up to the top of the solar collectors. A drill pump has successfully been used to fill solar water-heating systems. To test the system for leaks, being sure that there is no air in the glycol loop, overpressure the glycol loop to twice the operating pressure (30 PSI maximum, and less than the pressure relief valve rating) and let the system stand for eight hours. If the pressure in the loop has dropped, you have a leak that must be found and repaired. If the pressure holds, fill the system with a 50-percent propylene glycol 50-percent water mixture and pressurize the loop to no more than 15 PSI.
Step 7: Insulate water and glycol lines
After the system has been checked for leaks, carefully insulate all of the glycol and water lines. Water piping can be insulated with standard foam pipe insulation. Glycol piping and external heat exchangers should be insulated with fiberglass pipe insulation. Duct tape can be used on the joints of the water piping insulation, and use the joint tape that comes with fiberglass piping insulation. Insulation exposed to sunlight can be protected by a foil wrap, or UV resistant paint. Fiberglass insulation used outside should be protected with PVC insulation covers.
DETAILS OF HOT WATER SOLAR COLLECTOR
ISOMETRIC VIEW OF SOLAR HEATING SYSTEM
In conclusion fabrication of solar collector is among the project that has brought change in our community since it was realized. This has reduced cost of power since it uses sun power which is not costly and therefore the most preferred installation
Plumbing and heating by f hall’